The missile was fired as part of the regular practice trial of the Strategic Forces Command, MVKV Prasad, director of the Integrated Test Range in Chandipur in Odisha's Balasore district, told IANS.
"The test was successful and it has met all its test requirements," he said.
Prasad, however, declined to specify the exact location in the Bay of Bengal where it took place.
Dhanush is a naval version of the nuclear-capable ballistic missile Prithvi.
It has a range of 350 km and is capable of carrying a conventional as well as nuclear payload of more than 500 kg. It can hit both land and sea-based targets.
The missile gives the Indian Navy capability to strike enemy targets with great precision.
The Indian Navy surface-to-surface nuclear-capable Dhanush ballistic missile was successfully test-fired on 9 April 2015 from a naval ship off the Odisha coast.